With the competition between Turkish parties intensifying in preparation for the battle of local elections, which is very close in the country, the issue of establishing a new constitution for the country, suited to the stage or century of the new Turkish Republic, is being raised. Turkey's ruling “Justice and Development” party, as it likes to be called, has come out in force, declaring through many of its activist leaders that Turkey deserves a new civil constitution, and that they will do their best to get rid of it. do. Constitution drafted by military coup in 1980.
Expressing the desire for a liberal civil constitution for the country that meets the needs of citizens, gives priority to democracy, civil liberties and rights, protects human dignity, preserves national unity, and fulfills the duties of the State. Defines the general structure precisely.
Erdogan, for his part, stressed the need for the new constitution to be the result of constructive dialogue and broad political and social consensus, and promised to knock on all doors of political parties to achieve this goal.
However, the loss of trust between the government and the various opposition parties, in addition to the presence of several points of contention between them, may become an obstacle to achieving this political and popular desire, at least in the near future.
This is in light of the positivity of this proposal on the part of the government and the in-principle agreement expressed by Turkish political parties on the need to draft a new constitution for the country, which aims to get rid of this sentiment. The coup that still dominates many articles of the current Constitution, despite the numerous amendments made to it, which has reached twenty amendments, including twelve amendments made during the Era of Justice and Development, most of which are aimed at reducing the impact Was. Military institution in the political system of government.
The idea of drafting a new constitution for the country is not a new thing today, as several different projects were previously proposed during the years 2011 and 2013, until a consensus was reached in 2016 to draft a constitution. There was no talk of forming a committee, which would include the represented parties. Parliament.
However, the differences between them prevented them from reaching any agreement or coming up with a unified project that met the aspirations of citizens, who were extremely disappointed by the continuity of the 1980 Constitution and the failure to take positive steps to replace it over these decades. Feel dissatisfied. That part of the political elite that succeeded in ruling the country, and they believe that the time has come. To get rid of the legacy of the period of military coups in which they suffered great losses, and to make room for a new constitution that serves the interests of the country and its people.
Presidential or parliamentary?
The differences between the government and the opposition over the articles of the new Constitution revolve around a number of important issues, each of which is a major obstacle in the way of achieving this national mission, because it is dominated by the ideological factor, which is considered to be Everyone adopts. , and directs its actions to satisfy its electoral base.
For example, the opposition believes that the presidential system currently in place has caused more harm than good to Turkish political life, as the post of Prime Minister has been abolished, consolidating all powers in the hands of the President. And the authority of the Parliament has been reduced, rendering it ineffective as per his point of view.
Therefore, before the parliamentary and presidential elections, it was keen to make promises about its intention to work to restore the parliamentary system and create a new constitution for the country in the event of winning a parliamentary majority. However, President Erdoğan took the view that the “People's Alliance” winning a majority of parliamentary seats and him winning the presidency was tantamount to a large-scale referendum on the system. People want a presidential system, not a parliamentary system as the opposition wants, despite its acceptance of the existence of certain loopholes and articles requiring amendments, which was clearly evident during the implementation of the presidential system.
The opposition's biggest concern is the fear that the ruling party, by raising the issue of drafting a new constitution for the country at this special time, wants to fundamentally amend the system for electing the president, allowing Erdogan to come back to power in the next To get permission to come. Elections in 2028.
This happened when he waived his full constitutional rights according to the currently in force Constitution, which allowed him to run for the presidency twice in a row, especially since Erdogan raised the issue of electing the President of the Republic by fifty percent. Told the possibility of reconsideration. Plus one, which increased the fears and concerns of the opposition, this trend is evidence of the President's desire to contest re-election, or at least to facilitate the task of his party's candidate in the upcoming elections and help him overcome his rival. To give full opportunity. ,
Secular or Islamic identity?
The leaders of the ruling party discussed – that the country really needs a new Constitution which is in tune with the spirit of the times and the development the world is going through and which is in line with the aspirations of the country. “The Muslim Turkish people” and “for them to preserve their heritage which is based on Islamic values” – opened the door. There is widespread debate about the identity of the Republic of Turkey that should be adopted in the new constitution.
The opposition fears that the ruling party will strike a compromise with Islamist and conservative parties represented in parliament – such as Happiness, Future, Development and Progress – thereby establishing the Islamic principle of the Turkish state in the new century.
And they are also sacrificing Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's principles, and dismantling his legacy, which is based on secularism, as the Constitution says in its second article: “The Republic of Turkey is a secular democratic state based on the rule of law. is governed by, which is taken into account.” Concepts of public peace, national unity, justice and respect for human rights that are consistent with Atatürk's nationalism. It is a material that is immune to damage or tampering with its construction.
Ankara or Istanbul?
This leads us to another fear that worries the leaders of the opposition parties, who believe that this change could be a necessary prelude to the next step, since this change would jeopardize the permanency of Ankara as the capital of the Republic of Turkey. With respect to the clause may extend to. There is a provision in the Constitution which has to be changed.
After taking the step of returning the Hagia Sophia Mosque to worship and ignoring the issue of continuing it as a museum, as Atatürk wanted; In fulfillment of Europe's wishes, Erdogan will have no obstacles in declaring Istanbul the capital of the Republic of Turkey in its new bicentenary.
This is the decision that millions of Muslims across the Islamic world are waiting for from him in general, and if he does so, he will satisfy the desire of Islamists and Turkish conservatives in particular to represent a great popular force. Have come. And eager to restore the glory of their Islamic state once again.
Which guarantees his transformation into a national hero in their eyes, having succeeded where others had failed in the last hundred years of the Republic's history, because thus he will be able to demolish all those taboos, Destroy all its heritage on which the secularism of the state is based, and restore the Islamic face of the country.
In particular his Justice and Development Party's insistence on constitutionally protecting the freedom to wear the hijab, which is one of the major points of contention between the government and the opposition, which believes that the issue will be resolved after the package of laws. But there is no need for discussion or protection now. It was approved by the Parliament, giving complete freedom to veiled women to wear hijab. She will complete her university studies, work in government offices and appear in the media without any restrictions or conditions.
All these fears affecting the Turkish opposition lead it to stand firmly against any efforts by the Justice and Development Party to draft a new constitution for the country. The Republican People's Party clearly announced that it would not cooperate with the ruling party, and its chairman, Ozgur Ozil, also made the announcement to the group. He told MPs from his party that he would not participate in the discussion, addressing Erdoğan: “You will not be able to make a new constitution for the country. We will not be able to make a new constitution for the country.”
While the leader of the “Good” party, Meral Aksener, stressed that if the expected constitutional changes included a requirement to serve more than two terms, his party would not support these changes.
Fulfilling the aspirations of citizens
Realizing the dream of getting rid of the existing constitution drafted by the military and starting to write a new civilian constitution that meets the aspirations of the citizens, it would behoove the opposition at some point to overcome their fears and differences with “justice and fairness.” Can inspire to do. Development” Party, and be ready for the historic opportunity available to accomplish this matter, including benefiting citizens and guaranteeing the political and social stability of the Turkish State in view of the state of turmoil prevailing in many countries of the world Is. And portends grave consequences, the extent of which only God knows.