Islamic groups in Pakistan… Maududi's legacy from Lahore to Dar es Salaam

A reformist Islamic movement that calls for Islam as a comprehensive system for all humanity and Muslims in particular. It was founded in 1941 in the city of Lahore in the Indian subcontinent, and Abu al-Ala Maududi was elected its emir. This group was attributed to have migrated to Pakistan after gaining independence from India and declaring the establishment of the state of Pakistan on August 28, 1947.

The Islamic movement in Pakistan is considered an inspiration for many Islamic movements in different parts of the world, as well as the intellectual source from which some of them were nurtured. The most prominent role in this is given by Maududi to Abu al-Ala. Who attracted many supporters of the Islamic movement with his writings, and he was influenced by them and his thought “derived from the Quran, the Sunnah and what I have collected.” The nation has precedence over them. Writings and books were translated into Arabic, Persian, English and French.

Origin and establishment

The establishment of Jamaat-e-Islami in Pakistan was announced on August 17, 1941, before Pakistan's independence, at a meeting in the city of Lahore, which included 75 founding members representing different geographies of the country.

In 1943, the Islamic group shifted its main headquarters from Lahore to Dar es Salaam, a village in the city of Pathankot, returning to Lahore after Pakistan's independence on August 28, 1947, where the group's headquarters was established and it sought the formation of of Pakistani rule according to Islamic law.

Maududi delivered a famous speech at the Faculty of Law in which he called for the formation of Pakistani governance according to Islamic law, thus expressing the movement's genuine interaction with public affairs and its attempt to transfer ideas from the venues of mosques and seminars. To collide with reality and try to influence it.

The group emerged as a result of a bitter reality created by the fall of the Ottoman Caliphate and the political vacuum it left, as well as the suffering of Indian Muslims and Hindu leaders eager to be freed from Hindu oppression after India's independence showed signs of Happened. Give it a pagan dimension. He began launching campaigns to force Muslims to change their religion, and Maududi was busy. Through writing and journalism, which led him to live the events that affected him and interact with the first generation that laid the foundation.

It can be said that Maududi was the one who gave birth to the “Islamic Group in Pakistan” with his idea, put it forward as an organization, inspired it with his thoughts and writings and even ​That inspired him through his participation in the movement from his experience before the movement. to revive the Islamic Caliphate, and then his involvement in the Society for the Relief and Relief of Muslims who became victims of conflict with Hindus.

founding person

Among the most prominent founding figures of the Islamic group in Pakistan, apart from its first founder, Abu al-Ala Maududi:

  • Mian Tufail Muhammad, who served as the group's secretary general and succeeded Maududi as its emir in 1972, and remained emir until 1987.
  • Qazi Hussain Ahmed, who succeeded Mian Tufail Muhammad as the group's general secretary and then its Amir in 1987.
  • Khurshid Ahmed, Deputy Amir, former minister and Member of Parliament.
  • Khalil Ahmed al-Hamidi, director of Dar al-Uruba and director of the Maududi International Institute for Islamic Studies.
  • Professor Abdul Ghafoor Ahmed, who was the Amir of the group's branch in Karachi, was a member of the Union Parliament and Minister of Industries and Mineral Materials in 1978.
  • A great boy. He was living without citizenship in his home country because the government had taken away his citizenship to restrict his campaigning. He was the emir of the Islamic group in East Pakistan before its separation, and after his release from prison he became the emir of the group in Bangladesh.
Supporters of the Islamic group in Pakistan during a gathering in Rawalpindi in 2009 to protest US intervention in the region (Reuters)

thoughts and ideology

The Islamic Group in Pakistan is a Sunni group that views Islam as a comprehensive system for all humanity and Muslims in particular. Its ideology is based on the call to follow the Book of God and the Sunnah of His Prophet, may God bless him and give him peace, and work towards the establishment of a civil state in accordance with the Islamic vision.

The group's leaders and founders wrote extensive views about their vision of the state and governance, led by founder Abu al-Ala al-Mawdudi, who expressed the group's ideas and viewpoints in his widely circulated books. .

The idea of ​​the Islamic group was settled by Maududi before its birth, and he wanted it to be an official container that would embrace his work and his reformist idea of ​​achieving two great goals which remained his first goal and Later his views were expressed. Group:

  • Urgent call for implementation of Islamic law in the entire territory of Pakistan, given that it is a country founded by Muslims.
  • Fighting the trend of westernization and countering the new ideologies that became popular during the country's independence.

The Islamic group has become strong in various parts of Pakistan and has penetrated the society due to its role in publishing books and messages and establishing schools, institutions and centers to educate the illiterate. Its presence has also spread to universities through the student branch it is affiliated with (the Islamic Students Association).

Relations between the Islamic group in Pakistan and the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt were close due to “convergence of viewpoints and mutual influence and influence on key intellectual goals and issues”.

community structure

The group has an emir who is elected by a majority of its members by direct vote. It consists of a central Shura Council that elects the group's members, and a secretary appointed by the Emir from among the members on the advice of the Shura. Council, and the Amirs act in accordance with the decisions of the Shura Council.

political track

The Islamic movement went through several important phases, notably the period of its emergence, when its founder, Maududi, and some of its members were arrested in 1948 following Maududi's speech at a public meeting in Karachi, in which he demanded the implementation of Did. Islamic system.

Maududi's speech sparked the first confrontation between the Islamic group and authorities in Pakistan. He and his comrades were arrested and gained impressive popular support that put pressure on the government. It released the detainees and later responded to their demands by incorporating their original ideas. An Islamic constitution for the country, declaring Pakistan an Islamic state.

The group continued its pressure and on October 14, 1950, Maududi delivered a speech at a general meeting in Lahore in which he criticized the constitutional proposals, which he said would pave the way for dictatorship. The public revolted, which shocked the government. to invite scholars to a meeting to arrange a draft of the constitution, and Maududi was among those gathered.

The government remained silent on constitutional points and the movement entered a new confrontation, resulting in military decisions being announced on March 6, 1953. Maududi was arrested along with some members of the group and released.

Maududi was then arrested again and sentenced to death before his sentence was commuted due to public pressure and support of the movement and he was released in 1955.

The group fought with socialists, Hindus and non-religious people for 9 years (1947–1956). In early 1956, Pakistani authorities responded to the movement and the public's demands by issuing an Islamic constitution, then issued a decision to ban the group and arrest Maududi and 63 of its leaders and members.

Maududi resigned from his position in 1972 due to health reasons and was succeeded by Mian Tufail Muhammad and was followed by a number of officers who assumed the position of Amir of the group.

The Islamic group's roots spread across all levels within Pakistani society, and it became influential through student and labor unions. The group is affiliated with over two thousand educational institutions and numerous hospitals and clinics, which has placed it at the forefront of political life and has strong influence in public affairs, although this fluctuates with period.

Islamic groups and relations with power

The Islamic group's relations with the authorities in Pakistan have fluctuated according to the group's assessment of the behavior of the ruling authority and the level of understanding between the two sides, although some criticize the group for its “pragmatism” and ” ” Jumping into the arms of the army, with the exception of limited periods of armistice.

Pakistan has carried out five military coups, which have revealed the group's links with power. It initially opposed General Ayub Khan's coup in 1958, but supported it when the Second India–Pakistan War broke out in 1965, and Ayub Khan declared “holy jihad”. against India,” and then allied with political forces opposing him. Patriotism accused him of “converting victory into defeat at the negotiating table.” Ayub Khan submitted his resignation under public pressure in 1969. , and army chief Muhammad Yahya Khan took power.

The group's relations with the authorities were unstable, sometimes characterized by friendship and alliance and sometimes dominated by escalation and tension, until it entered the government of General Zia ul-Haq, represented by The Information Minister was Prince Mian Tufail Muhammad. The situation between them soon worsened as the group contemplated the overthrow of General Muhammad Yahya. Khan expressed his promise to hold elections that would ensure change in civilian political life.

The group supported the overthrow of Pervez Musharraf in 1999, and its emir believed that “the military's intervention in political affairs came about because of the aggression and civil and political crimes committed by Nawaz Sharif, Ayub Shaikh and Yahya Khan,” adding that military intervention Describing a temporary phenomenon.

The group participated in most of Pakistan's elections through its political wing, the Jamaat-e-Islami Party, and its electoral influence reached its peak after being described as an elite group, as its influence extended only to university students. was limited. and professional associations.

In 2002, the Islamic group in Pakistan succeeded in gaining 53 seats in the parliament, making it the third largest political force in the country. Its leader, Qazi Hussain Ahmed, reached the federal parliament and won a major victory in the North-Western Provinces (Sarhad). With Peshawar as its capital, it became eligible to form a regional government.

The group boycotted the 2008 elections, believing that Pervez Musharraf held the elections under his supervision to ensure the continuation of policies that served American interests. After that, the electoral influence of the group declined, which was not mature enough, as its electoral influence remained limited compared to its ability to organize the masses and influence Islamic issues internally and externally, the most important of which was Palestine. topic is.

The group's political and parliamentary weakness was visible in the 2013–2018 elections, when it gained only one seat in parliament. Some believe that the decline in the group's political performance is due to the absence of an influential personality and internal problems in areas like Dir and the like. Swat in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, and the group virtually abandoned the Punjab and Sindh provinces and Balochistan and failed to attract any influential figures who would have enabled it to consolidate its position politically.

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